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   日期:2020-12-28     来源:www.zhixueshuo.com    作者:智学网    浏览:661    评论:0    



There is evidence that the usual variety of high blood pressure is, inpart, a familial disease. Since families have similar genes as well as similarenvironments, familial diseases could be due to shared genetic influences, toshared environmental factors, or to both. For some years, the role of one

environment factor commonly shared by families, namely dietary salt , has been studied at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Thesestudies suggest that long excess salt intake can lead to high blood pressure inman and animals. Some inpiduals, however, and some rats consume large amountsof salt without developing high blood pressure. No matter how strictly allenvironmental factors were controlled in these experiments, some salt-fedanimals never developed hypertension whereas a few rapidly developed very severehypertension followed by early death. These marked variations were interpretedto result from differences in genetic constitution.

By mating long successive generations of those animals that failed todevelop hypertension from salt intake, a resistant strain hasbeen evolved in which consumption of large quantities of salt fails to influencethe blood pressure significantly. In contrast, by mating only animals thatquickly develop hypertension from salt, sensitive strain hasalso been developed.

The availability of these two strains permits investigations possible. Theyprovide a plausible laboratory model on which to investigate some clinicalaspects of the human hypertension. More important, there might be thepossibility of developing methods by which genetic susceptibility of humanbeings to high blood pressure can be defined without waiting for its appearance.Radioactive sodium 22 was an important tool in working out the characteristicsof the sodium chloride metabolism.

21. The study of the effects of salt on high blood pressure was carriedout_______.

A. as members of the same family tend to use similar amounts of salt

B. to explore the long-term use of a sodium based substance

C. because it was proven that salt caused high blood pressure

D. because of the availability of chemically pure salt and itsderivatives

22. The main difference between S and R rats is their_______.

A. need for sodium 22 B. rate of mating

C. reaction to salt D. type of blood

23. We can infer from the article that sodium 22 can be used to_______.

A. control high blood pressure

B. cure high blood pressure caused by salt

C. tell the S rats from the R rats

D. determine what a sodium chloride metabolism is like

24. The most beneficial results of the research might be_______.

A. development of diets free of salt

B. an early cure for high blood pressure

C. control of genetic agents that cause high blood pressure

D. the early identification of potential high blood pressure victims

25. Which of the statements best relates the main idea of this article?

A. When salt is added rats and human beings react similarly.

B. The near future will see a cure for high blood pressure.

C. The medical field is desperately in need of research.

D. A tendency toward high blood pressure may be a hereditary factor.

21. A 22. C 23. D 24. D 25. D




by accident 偶然

on account of 由于,因为,为了……的原故

in addition to 另外,加之

in addition 除…以外

in the air 流传中

on average 按平均值,一般

on the basis of 依据,在…的基础上

at best 充其量,至多

for the better 好转,向好的方向进步

on board 在船上

out of breath 喘不过气来

on business 因公,因事

in any case 无论怎么样,不管如何

in case of 倘若,假如发生;提防

in case 假使,以防

in no case 决不,无论怎么样不

by chance 偶然,碰巧

in charge 负责,管理

round the lock 日夜不停地

in common 共用的,共有些

in conclusion 最后,总之

on condition 假如

in consequence of 因为…的原故,由于

on the contrary 正相反

in contrast with/to 与…对比起来,与…形成对比

out of control 失控

under control 处于控制之下

at all cots 不惜任何代价,无论怎么样

at the cosplayt of 以…为代价

in the course of 在…过程中,在…期间

of course 当然,自然

in danger 在危险中,垂危

out of danger 脱离危险

out of date 过时的,不需要的

up to date 现代化的,符合当前情况的

in demand 很需要的,受青睐的

in debt 欠债,负债

in detail 详细他

in difficulties 处境困难

in the distance 在远处

off duty 下了班,不在值班

on duty 在上班,在值班

on earth 到底,到底

at all events 无论怎么样,不管如何

in any event 无论怎么样,不管如何

in the event of 万一,假如

for example 比如

in the face of 在…面前;不考虑

in fact 其实,事实上

in favor of 同意,支持

on fire 失火,失火

on foot 步行

in force 生效,有效;在推行中;很多的

in front of 在…面前,在…前面

in future 今后,从今将来

in the future 在以后

in general 一般说来,大体上

on guard 警惕,防备;站岗,值班

in half 成两半

at hand 近在手边,在附近

by hand 用手,用体力

hand down 把…传下去

hand in hand 手拉手;密切关联地,同时并进地

in hand 在进行中;在控制中

on hand 在手边,在近处

on one hand 一方面

on the other hand 另一方面

at heart 内心里,本质上

by heart 凭记性

at home 在家,在国内;舒适,无拘束;熟知,精通

in honor of 为纪念,为了向…表示敬意

on/upon one’s honor 以名誉担保

in a hurry 匆忙,急于

for instance 比如;比方说

at intervals 不时,每隔一段时间

at last 终于

at least 至少

at length 终于,最后;详细地

in light of 鉴于,因为


have/gain access to 可以获得

take…into account 分析到,顾及,体谅

take advantage of 占…的实惠,使用

pave the way 铺平道路,为…作筹备

pay attention to 注意

do/try one’s best 尽力,努力

get/have the best of 战胜

make the best of 充分使用

get/have the better of 战胜,在…中占上风

catch one’s breath 屏息;喘气,气喘;歇口气

take care 注意,当心

take care of 爱惜,照料

take a chance 冒险,投机

take charge 开始管理,接管

keep…company 伴随

take delight in 以…为乐

make a difference 有影响,起用途

carry/bring/put into effect 使生效,实行,达成

come/go into effect 生效,推行

take effect 生效,起用途

catch sb’s eye 被某人看到,引起某人注意

keep an eye on 留心,照看,密切注意

make a face 做鬼脸

find fault with 抱怨,挑剔,找岔子

catch fire 失火,开始燃烧

make fiends 与交朋友

be friends with 与…友好

make fun of 取笑,拿…开玩笑

keep sb’s head 维持镇静

in the world 到底,到底

lose sb’s head 慌乱,仓皇失措

lose heart 丧失勇气,失去信心

get/catch/take hold of 抓住,得到 [page]

keep house 管理家务

throw/cast light on/upon 使人弄清楚,阐明

bear/keep in mind 记住

have in mind 分析到,想到

make up one’s mind 下定决心,打定主意

bring/put into operation 推行,使生效,使运行

come/go into operation 实行,实行,生效

keep pace 与齐步前进,与并驾齐驱

play a part 起用途,参与,扮演角色

take place 发生,进行,举行

take the place of 代替,取代

put into practice 推行,实行

make progress 进步,进展

give rise to 引起,造成为…的缘由

make sense 讲得通,有意义,言之有理

catch sight of 发现,忽然看见

on the stage 做演员

take one’s time 不着急,不慌忙

keep track of 与…维持联系

lose track of 失去与…的联系,不可以跟上…的进展

make use of 使用

put to use 用

give way 让路;屈服,让步;倒塌,坍陷

make one’s way 前往,行进,去

make way 让路,腾出地方或地方


appeal to 呼吁,恳求

attempt at 企图,努力

attitude to/towards 态度,怎么看

a great/good deal of 很多,很,极其

influence in 干预,介入

interference with 妨碍,打扰

introduction to 介绍

a lot 很多,很多

lots of 很多,很多

fall in love 爱上

reply to 回答,回话

trolley bus 电车

i.d. card 身份证

credit card 信用卡

no doubt 无疑地,非常可能

next door 隔壁

out of doors 在户外

face to face 面对面地

a few 有的,几个

quite a few 不少,相当多

a little 一点,一些

little by little 渐渐地,一点点地

quite a little 相当多,不少

no matter 无论

the moment 一…

no more 不再

fair play 公平竞赛,公平对待

rest room 卫生间,盥洗室

primary school 小学

side by side 肩并肩地,一块

heart and soul 全心全意

step by step 逐步地

ahead of time 提前

all the time 一直,一直

once upon a time 从前

once in a while 偶尔

no wonder 难怪,并不奇怪

word for word 逐字地

decline with thanks 婉言谢绝


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